Archive for the ‘Linux’ category

Install samba server on Ubuntu 16.04

October 11th, 2017

Check this tutorial on Ubuntu official site:; and its next page about security as well:

Howerver while setting up the share dir, I suggest you do not follow the tutorial to set owner as nobody:nogroup, bucause this may make this dir not writable for other users. Instead, you can create a new user and group: ttgshare:ttgshare, and assign the write privilege to the group ttgshare by adding this line to /etc/samba/smb.conf:
write list = @ttgshare

Ant build script for java web project with tomcat on ubuntu

December 7th, 2013

Here is a sample ant build script for java web project with tomcat on ubuntu. It should be put under the root directory of the web project.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project name="ProjectName" default="war" basedir=".">
	<property environment="env" />
	<property name="" value="ProjectName" />
	<property name="webapp.dir" value="/data/public/JavaWebapps" />
	<property name="tomcat.lib" value="/usr/share/tomcat7/lib" />
	<property name="ant.lib" value="/usr/share/ant/lib" />
	<property name="dist.dir" value="${basedir}/war" />
	<property name="webRoot.dir" value="${basedir}/WebContent" />
	<property name="src.dir" value="${basedir}/src" />
	<property name="config.dir" value="${basedir}/resources" />
	<property name="lib.dir" value="${webRoot.dir}/WEB-INF/lib" />
	<property name="build.dir" value="${basedir}/build" />
	<!-- Init classpath -->
	<path id="project.classpath">
		<fileset dir="${lib.dir}">
			<include name="**/*.jar" />
		<fileset dir="${tomcat.lib}">
			<include name="*.jar" />
		<!-- ant lib  -->
		<fileset dir="${ant.lib}">
			<include name="*.jar" />

	<!-- get the source compile classpath in a printable form -->
	<pathconvert pathsep="${line.separator}|   |-- "
	<!-- show classpath jars -->
	<target name="print_classpath">
		<echo message="|-- compile classpath"/>
		<echo message="|   |"/>
		<echo message="|   |-- ${echo.path.compile}"/>
	<target name="clear" description="Clear the project">
		<delete dir="${build.dir}" />
		<delete dir="${dist.dir}" />
		<delete file="${}/${}.war" />
		<delete dir="${}/${}" />

	<target name="init" depends="clear" description="Init the directories">
		<mkdir dir="${build.dir}/classes" />
		<mkdir dir="${dist.dir}" />

	<target name="compile" depends="init" description="Compile source files">
		<echo message="begin compile..." />
		<javac srcdir="${src.dir}" destdir="${build.dir}/classes" 
			includeantruntime="false" nowarn="on" 
			target="1.7" deprecation="true" debug="true" 
			encoding="UTF-8" classpathref="project.classpath" 
			<compilerarg line="-Xlint:unchecked" />
			<!-- <classpath refid="project.classpath" /> -->
		<copy todir="${build.dir}">
			<fileset dir="${src.dir}">
				<include name="**/*.xml" />
				<include name="**/*.properties" />
				<include name="**/*.sql" />
			<fileset dir="${config.dir}">
				<include name="**/*.xml" />
				<include name="**/*.properties" />
				<include name="**/*.sql" />
		<echo message="end compile..." />

	    <target name="pack" depends="compile"> 
	        <jar jarfile="${build.dir}/${}.jar"> 
	            <fileset dir="${build.dir}/classes"> 
	                <include name="**/*.class"/> 

	<target name="war" depends="compile" description="Package the project as .war file.">
		<echo message="begin packing war..." />
		<war destfile="${dist.dir}/${}.war" basedir="${webRoot.dir}" 
			<lib dir="${lib.dir}" />
			<classes dir="${build.dir}/classes" />
			<fileset dir="${webRoot.dir}">
				<include name="***.*" />
		<echo message="end war..." />

	<target name="deploy" depends="war" description="Deploy the war to tomcat">
		<echo message="begin deploy..." />
		<copy file="${dist.dir}/${}.war" todir="${webapp.dir}" />
		<echo message="end deploy..." />


Configure Tomcat 7 & Eclipse on Ubuntu

June 28th, 2013

Install Eclispe

Either via sudo apt-get install eclipse and then install Web Tools Platform for JavaEE, or download Eclipse for JavaEE.

Install tomcat

We can also install tomcat in 2 ways:
1. sudo apt-get tomcat7
2. download tomcat7 and extract it into folder, such as ~/Prog/tomcat

Integrate Eclipse and Tomcat

When I run the project with “Run On Server” and follow the instruction of “Define a new server” with tomcat v7, I always get this error message: “Cannot create a server using the selected type”. Well, here is the solution:

And then somehow I encounter this error: Could not load the Tomcat server configuration at /Servers/Tomcat v7.0 Server at localhost-config. The configuration may be corrupt or incomplete., and tells that it’s because eclipse failed to copy the conf files into eclipse tomcat conf. so:
1. first sudo chmod -R 777 ~/Prog/tomcat7/conf;
2. and delete the server in Eclipse Perferences -> Server -> Runtime Environment, re-add it;
3. and then re-define the server at “Run on Server”.

make a program run at boot on linux

July 13th, 2012

just to remind myself:

put the command in file:

install igraph (C) on Linux(ubuntu) and use it in Eclipse

November 30th, 2011

Build and install igraph.

      download the source code package;
      unpack it into a directory, eg. igraph-0.5.4 (I’ll use IGRAPH_DIR instead below)
      enter the directory: user> cd IGRAPH_DIR
          user> make
          user> sudo make install This will install the igraph libary files into /usr/local/lib

Add igraph libraries to the shared libraries search path

If you haven’t include /usr/local/lib into your shared libraries search path as defined in /etc/, add it. Otherwise, you will see an error like this: error while loading shared libraries: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory.

And DON’T forget to reload the config:user> sudo ldconfig

Use igraph in Eclipse

      Go to Project -> Properties-> C/C++ Build -> Settings
      Go to GCC C++ Compiler -> Directories, add /usr/loccal/include/igraph.
      Go to GCC C++ Linker -> Libraries, add “igraph” to Libraries (-l) and add “/usr/loca/lib” to Library search path (-L).

linux batch rename files

October 28th, 2011

Use this command to rename a set of files:

for file in * ; do mv $file `echo $file | sed 's/OLD_STRRING/NEW_STRING/'` ; done

And here is a batch file:


if [ $# -ne 3 ]; then
        echo "Usage: $0 'FilePattern' SearchString ReplaceString";
        echo "Eg: $0 'r-*.sh' 5 6";
        for file in $1 ; do mv $file `echo $file | sed s/$2/$3/` ; done

If the 2nd or 3rd parameter contains space, use ‘ ‘ to surround the parameter.

bash script for killing all mysql processes / connections

September 29th, 2011

Here is a small bash script for killing all mysql processes (or connections).

The basic idea is to select all process IDs into a tmp file (each process ID a line), and then read the file line by line and kill the process, finally remove the tmp file.

This bash only works for MYSQL >= 5.1.7. Becuase before 5.1.7 process list is not stored in the table INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST.


  • either by providing the MYSQL root password as a parameter to the bash as:
    user> MysqlRootPass
  • or by editing the password the line mysqlpass=$1 as:
    mysqlpass=MysqlRootPass and then excute the bash without parameter:

    Of course, you can also edit the other variables in the bash file.



# mysql host/user/pass who has the privilege to read schema INFORMATION_SCHEMA
# tmp file path

# select all process IDs into the tmp file. each line has a process id.
echo "SELECT id FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST INTO OUTFILE '$tmpprocesslistfile';" | mysql -h$mysqlhost -u$mysqluser -p$mysqlpass INFORMATION_SCHEMA

# read the file line by line and kill the process
while read qryid
echo "kill $qryid;" | mysql -h$mysqlhost -u$mysqluser -p$mysqlpass
done < "$tmpprocesslistfile"

# remove the tmp file
echo 'All connections have been killed.';
echo 'Please enter sudo password to remove the tmp file if necessary.';
sudo rm $tmpprocesslistfile

System V message queue example (msgget, msgctl, msgsnd, msgrcv)

September 21st, 2011

Found a very good example of message queue showing how to use msgget, msgctl, msgsnd, and msgrcv at Here I list the code with tiny fix and some of my comments.

The linux man page of msgsnd & msgrcv can be found here:


extern int errno;       // error NO.
#define MSGPERM 0600    // msg queue permission
#define MSGTXTLEN 128   // msg text length

int msgqid, rc;
int done;

struct msg_buf {
  long mtype;
  char mtext[MSGTXTLEN];
} msg;

int main(int argc,char **argv)
  // create a message queue. If here you get a invalid msgid and use it in msgsnd() or msgrcg(), an Invalid Argument error will be returned.
  if (msgqid < 0) {
    printf("failed to create message queue with msgqid = %d\n", msgqid);
    return 1;
  printf("message queue %d created\n",msgqid);
  // message to send
  msg.mtype = 1; // set the type of message
  sprintf (msg.mtext, "%s\n", "a text msg..."); /* setting the right time format by means of ctime() */

  // send the message to queue
  rc = msgsnd(msgqid, &msg, sizeof(msg.mtext), 0); // the last param can be: 0, IPC_NOWAIT, MSG_NOERROR, or IPC_NOWAIT|MSG_NOERROR.
  if (rc < 0) {
    perror( strerror(errno) );
    printf("msgsnd failed, rc = %d\n", rc);
    return 1;

  // read the message from queue
  rc = msgrcv(msgqid, &msg, sizeof(msg.mtext), 0, 0); 
  if (rc < 0) {
    perror( strerror(errno) );
    printf("msgrcv failed, rc=%d\n", rc);
    return 1;
  printf("received msg: %s\n", msg.mtext);

  // remove the queue
  if (rc < 0) {
    perror( strerror(errno) );
    printf("msgctl (return queue) failed, rc=%d\n", rc);
    return 1;
  printf("message queue %d is gone\n",msgqid);

  return 0;

————– Update 14/Dec/2011 ——————
A note about the struct msg_buf. From: “The Linux Programmer’s Guide”

The ability to assign a given message a type, essentially gives you the capability to multiplex messages on a single queue. For instance, client processes could be assigned a magic number, which could be used as the message type for messages sent from a server process. The server itself could use some other number, which clients could use to send messages to it. In another scenario, an application could mark error messages as having a message type of 1, request messages could be type 2, etc. The possibilities are endless.

On another note, do not be misled by the almost too-descriptive name assigned to the message data element (mtext). This field is not restricted to holding only arrays of characters, but any data, in any form. The field itself is actually completely arbitrary, since this structure gets redefined by the application programmer. Consider this redefinition:

struct my_msgbuf {
long mtype; /* Message type */
long request_id; /* Request identifier */
struct client info; /* Client information structure */

Here we see the message type, as before, but the remainder of the structure has been replaced by two other elements, one of which is another structure! This is the beauty of message queues. The kernel makes no translations of data whatsoever. Any information can be sent.

command line network tools on linux

July 29th, 2011


  • netstat -tulpan:
  • netstat -tl
  • netstat -anp –tcp –udp: will show all open tcp and udp connections.


  • lsof -i
  • lsof -i | grep 80
  • lsof -i | grep apache2


display bandwidth usage on an interface by host

configure mail server EXIM on debian

July 29th, 2011


use the command:

dpkg-reconfigure exim4-config

and follow the instructions.

Error handle

If there is an error message saying:

ALERT: exim paniclog /var/log/exim4/paniclog has non-zero size, mail system possibly broken ... failed!
You can fix it by simply removing the log file by:
rm /var/log/exim4/paniclog
And then restart the server:
 /etc/init.d/exim4 restart